Exxelia adopts laser marking for its products
Laser marking is part of the GREEN approach that Exxelia has recently implemented for its products.
Laser marking is part of the GREEN approach that Exxelia has recently implemented for its products.
Indeed, it allows the reduction of the presence of chemicals in Exxelia magnetic products, currently, identified by ink marking which requires the use of protective varnish in order to resist the chemical cleaning agents used by our customers.
Moreover, it allows a GREEN production with the drastic reduction of consumables (generally chemical) linked to ink marking and thus the need for recycling, for less impact on the environment.
Exxelia is part of an eco-responsible approach with many industrial advantages, namely
- Indelible marking => optimal traceability (even on the smallest products), permanent and of constant quality.
- Resistance to corrosion and heat.
- Resistance to chemical agents => no need to use protective varnish on our markings.
- No more use of consumables (compared to ink marking).
A “Game Changer” Rectangular Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor, Called Cubisic SLP
Cubisic SLP is the new rectangular aluminum electrolytic capacitor from EXXELIA, a world leader in manufacturing and designing capacitors. Their products are known for their high performance and reliability, which has made them the choice of many of the world's leading avionics engineering companies. However, they were looking for a new, more reliable capacitor that could withstand even greater vibration and altitude than any previous capacitor. They needed a stronger, more reliable product with a life expectancy that matched the customers' projects. Product description : Cubisic SLP is among the industry's first aluminum electrolytic capacitors designed with flat technology. The result is a lighter, smaller rectangular shape with increased surface area, which improves its capacity. As a result, it can accommodate more energy at almost any altitude or vibration level. This makes Cubisic SLP ideal for applications where added durability is required, such as cockpits and power generation functions on aircrafts, along with being well-suited for radars and laser systems in up to 50G vibration conditions and 92K feet altitude resistance. ✅ Low profile printed circuit mounting ✅ Possible mounting with 45 x 12 bracket (A691057) ✅ Possible thermal dissipation per conduction through a lower and upper surface ✅ Switch mode power supplies, impulse current ✅ Withstands more than 92,000 feet altitude ✅ Sleeve optional Cubisic SLP comes in three sizes, is made with high-quality aluminum foil and impregnate with electrolyte. It has 2 terminals: anode, cathode. What makes Cubisic SLP so different? An example of one of the advantages of this technology is that designing a capacitor with a traditional cylindrical shape, means that 2/3 of its volume is empty, compared to this new flat design. As a result, more capacitors are packed into the same volume, thus increasing the density. What’s a Rectangular Aluminum electrolytic capacitor, and why is that important? What’s, a Rectangular Aluminum electrolytic capacitor : In short (no pun intended), a rectangular electrolytic capacitor is one of those components that keeps your electronics running safely, your ship floating, and your aircraft operating properly. A Rectangular electrolytic capacitor is a component that essentially stores electrical energy in the form of an ‘electrolyte’. It’s made up of three layers: two aluminum sheets separated by an electrolyte solution and encased in a steel or porcelain container. And as the name implies, it’s shaped like a rectangle. It's widely used in different industries because of its reliable and cost-effective protection, which makes it the go-to component for many commercial, industrial, and aerospace uses. Rectangular aluminum electrolytic capacitors are mostly used in military aircrafts, missiles, and nautical transportation, as well as space navigation systems. In these applications, reliability is crucial for the safety of millions of people, so it is essential to choose a reliable product that offers high performance and quality. So if you find yourself with any of those use cases and/or engineering projects on your hands that require high performance and quality under extreme environments, look no further than this capacitor! Why is that important? As an example, when a military fighter jet accelerates, it can experience up to three times the force of gravity. While this is an impressive feat, consider what it does to the components in the vehicle. One such component is a capacitor. While it might seem like just a small piece of circuitry, capacitors are responsible for a variety of functions in your fighter jet, including: > Powering the radar antenna > Controlling engine performance > Controlling flight-related functions like fuel injection and landing gear operation This is because of the way they deal with heat buildup, which is an issue with capacitors in high-performance vehicles, especially on aircrafts where rapid acceleration can cause significant damage to any component. That's helpful in the cockpit, where the controls are exposed to this kind of force; a control that has to withstand up to three times the force of gravity will last longer than one that isn't designed for this. In other places on a military jet—such as power generation functions—the same principle applies: if something is going to be exposed to extreme forces (like vibration or acceleration), it needs to be strong enough not to break easily. That's why these capacitors are a great choice: they can handle extreme conditions without losing their effectiveness over time. That's why Exxelia takes the time to test every single capacitor we sell to our customers. How does its ability to withstand varying vibration levels and altitudes make a difference to the aerospace industry? What makes a rectangular aluminum electrolytic capacitor so effective for aerospace companies? The answer: They're made from high-quality material—pure and simple. But the difference between standard capacitors and those for the aerospace industry goes far beyond that. For the aerospace industry, the ideal capacitor would endure extreme temperatures, have a wide range of voltage tolerances, and withstand varying vibration levels, all while maintaining its effectiveness at an altitude of 19,000 meters—which is where Cubisic SLP comes in. As an electrolytic capacitor with an expanded operating temperature range and a very high resistance against vibration and altitude changes, this product has been able to make a huge difference in how well aircrafts can stay in control. Not only does it help prevent power outages, but also it helps avionics to stay functional when they are subjected to drastically changing conditions. Cubisic SLP capacitors are designed to handle extreme environments, which makes them incredibly versatile—and incredibly useful. From aeronautics to medicine, these capacitors can help your projects meet just about any challenges. Where can I find out more about EXXELIA’s Cubisic SLP range? Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors cubisic SLP Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors cubisic HTLP Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors alsic 145 20g Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors alsic 20g Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors cubisic lp Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors cubisic TECHNICAL PAPERS (Electrical characterization of cubisic SLP capacitors) DOWNLOAD DATASHEET
What you should know about electrolytic aluminum capacitors ?
1. Basic construction Structure of an electrolytic aluminum capacitor is shown hereunder: Anode: aluminum foil Dielectric: aluminum oxide Papers spacers impregnated with electrolyte Ionic conduction assumed by electrolyte Cathode: aluminum foil The positive plate is an etched aluminum foil covered with alumina which is the dielectric of the capacitor. The negative plate is constituted by a second aluminum foil which serves as a current supply, and by electrolyte-impregnated papers layers. The metal used for anode is a ≥ 99,98 % grade aluminum. The dielectric has a thickness of 13 Å / V. The aluminum used for the cathode is a ≥ 98 % grade aluminum covered with a dielectric layer with a thickness of about 40 Å. > See our capacitors in catalog 2. Diagram of the equivalent circuit CA = Capacitance of the anode CK = Capacitance of the cathode Rp = Parallel resistance due to the aluminum oxide f Ilms. RL = Series resistance of connections, plates and impregnated spacer. Ls = Inductance of winding and connections. A standard simplified diagram is : Cs is the series capacitance of both anode and cathode capacitances. Electrolytic aluminum capacitors are naturally polarized because of the insulating f Ilm on the anode. Given the very thin aluminum oxide layer, a reversed voltage should not exceed 1.5 V when there is energy supply. Short duration reverse voltages can be absorbed by special construction, second anode replacing the former cathode. 3. Electrical characteristics ✪ Rated capacitance Cr The rated capacitance is defined at 100 Hz and at ambient temperature. ✪ Rated voltage Ur Ur is the maximum DC voltage which may be applied in continuous operation. When applying a superimposed alternating voltage, the peak value of the resulting waveform should not exceed the rated voltage. ✪ Peak voltage Up Up is the maximum repetitive voltage which can be applied within short periods. Defined in CECC 30 300 and IEC 60 384-4: 1000 cycles of 30 s charge followed by a no load period of 5 min. 30 s with upper category temperature. Up ≤ 1,15 UR (UR ≤ 315 V) Up ≤ 1,10 UR (UR > 315 V) ✪ Dissipation factor Tan The dissipation or loss factor is defined by its tangent Tand ✪ Equivalent series resistance ESR The relation between ESR and dissipation factor Tand. ✪ Impedance Z - Inductance L The impedance is given by: Z =g R2 + (Lv –1 )2 Cv L inductance. Generally L = 5 to 20 nH Z and ESR as function of frequency typically follows the chart: ✪ Permissible ripple current (I r.m.s.) The current is defined at the maximum climatic category and at 100 Hz. It is the root mean square value r.m.s. The value I0 is the rated value for calculations of expected life up to3 I0. ✪ Leakage current Il Il is measured at 20°C after a 5 min. polarization under rated voltage. For CR in μF and UR in V: Il ≤ 0,01 CR UR or 1 μA* when CR UR ≤ 1000 μC Il ≤ 0,006 CR UR + 4 μA when CR UR > 1000 μC For UR > 350 VDC it can be specified: with K = 4, 6 or 8 or Il ≤ 0,3 (CR UR)0,7 + 4 μA (CECC 30 300) * Whichever is the greater ✪ Characteristics Versus temperature (typical values). - Capacitance drift Versus temperature - ESR and Z drifts at 100 Hz Versus temperature - Leakage current drift Versus temperature > See our capacitors in catalog 4. Specification to apply Electrolytic aluminum capacitors are defined in: NF and UTE French national standard CECC European specifications IEC international specifications Quality insurance procedures are described in these specifications. 5. Endurance tests / life time ✪ Standard endurance test at max category temperature: Standard endurance tests do not exceed 2000 hours at 125°C. However, present EXXELIA technologies concerning liquid electrolytes have led to endurance tests up to 5000 hours at 125°C (PRORELSIC 125 - FELSIC 125 RS) and even 20000 hours at 125°C (PRORELSIC 145 - ALSIC 145). ✪ Performance requirements on standard endurance tests Permissible capacitance drift ∆C/C (%) Permissible increase factors on Tand, ESR, Z and Il initial values (1) Tand or ESR: for initial value, take standard value. (2) Z: for initial value, take specified value (see data sheet ). Specific requirements can be taken into consideration with regards to initial values of dissipation factor or equivalent series resistance and impedance. ✪ Failure criteria for electrolytic capacitors Failure criteria are defined in CECC 30 301 Non measurable defaults leading to complete failure. Measurable defaults leading to adjustment losses of the load circuit (failure due to variations). - Non measurable defaults They might be summed up as: Open circuit Short circuit Operation of pressure relief device Severely damaged insulation Unusable terminations - Measurable defaults Variations exceeding the values given below characterize a default. Capacitance drift ∆C/C (%): 3 times the limit for standard endurance testing or 50 % (whichever is the smallest). Tand or ESR: 3 times standard max initial values. Z: 3 times standard max initial values. Il: initial limit (under load conditions). Specific requirements can be taken into consideration with regards to lower drifts. Influence of main parameter on operational life. - Temperature The capacitors operational life is highly dependent upon its internal temperature Ui and therefore upon the ambient temperature and the ripple current. Knowing ESR and dissipated power values one can figure out, the internal temperature rise and then determine the capacitors expected life. With present high boiling point electrolytes Ui max = 125 to 185°C depending on styles. - Ripple current The ripple current flowing through the capacitor increase the internal temperature through power dissipation. Standards define the permissible current at 100 Hz and generally consider a temperature rise of 5 to 10°C of max category temperature. Current waveforms and frequencies make it difficult to clearly determine the capacitors internal temperature rise, which defines the operationally life. Experiments confirm following relationship: Ui = Ua + (Uc - Ua) K Where: Ui = Internal hot spot temperature Ua = Ambient temperature Uc = Case temperature K = Parameter depending upon case diameter and cooling Ø ≥ 51 k = 2 ± 0,5 Ø < 51 k = 1,5 ± 0,5 (air cooling - 0,2 m/s) r.m.s. value according to current waveform. - Dissipated power versus case dimension For calculations of ripple currents, considering an internal temperature rise of 10°C P = ESR.I ² P = Dissipated power (mW) (Ui - Ua = 10°C) ESR: Equivalent series resistance (100 Hz 20°C) I: Ripple current (r.m.s. value at 100 Hz) For different frequencies from 100 Hz, I must be multiplied by the factor F, according to above chart. - Thermal resistance Rth and air cooling Rth is static thermal resistance (without cooling) between capacitor central hot spot and ambient temperature measured at a distance of one capacitor diameter Forced or not cooling air can lead to a significant decrease of these values. Consequently, r.m.s. ripple current can be increased as a function of air cooling speed: This parameter shall be applied to one capacitor alone. For capacitors in bank, ambient temperature must be strictly equal around all capacitors. - Quality guaranty We guarantee products manufactured during 2 years from the data of shipment against defaults of material and assembly. This guaranty can be involved by the buyer only if our products are used within normal conditions, always according to the state of the art and taking in account storage conditions. The equipment design should take into consideration possible failures of our capacitors and related effects in order to avoid them. Guaranty is not applicable for damages occurred by surge voltage, irregular use, polarity inversion or maintenance default. Guaranty is exclusively limited to the replacement of individual defective capacitors within the terms of delivery. This rule applied to all cases and particularly to any further consequence of failures. - Reliability Failure rate: FR = Number of components tested x test duration / Number of failures Failure rate is measured in FIT (failure in time = 10–9 / hour). The failure rate is set up during the life time of the capacitor (phase II) I. Early failure phase (generally excluded during ageing process). II. Operational life time of the capacitors III. End of life Mean time between failures MTBF = 1/FR mesured in years Multiplying factor of FR with voltage and temperature > See our capacitors in catalog 6. Information on application ✪ Cleaning solvents Use aliphatic alcohols, such as denatured ethyl alcohol, isopropanol, or butylacetate, or else alkaline d Iluted solutions. Avoid incompatible solvents (halogenous for example). ✪ Shelf life There is no electrical characteristics variation for long periods of storage except leakage current which can increase. It is caused by chemical reactions between the dielectric alumina and the electrolyte. These reactions are reversible when switched on. Capacitors can generally be stored at temperature between –5° and +50°C without reforming for the following periods of time: For UR ≤ 100 V, storage time: 5 years (up to 10 years under specific conditions) For 100 V < UR ≤ 360 V storage time: 3 years For 360 V < UR < 500 V storage time: 1 year For UR ≤ 500 V, storage time: 6 months Generally when these periods are overstepped, one hour at rated voltage causes the decrease of leakage current under the specified limits. An other way to avoid this leakage current increase problem is to always limit ava Ilable power through capacitor during first seconds or minutes after storage or transport, according to the following chart: ✪ Low pressure resistance EXXELIA capacitors can be used with ambient low pressure decreasing up to 10 mbar (altitude 28000 m – 92000 feet). ✪ Mounting screw terminals capacitors (FELSIC) Capacitors may be used vertically (terminals on top) or horizontally. When used horizontally, the following position in relation to the safety vent, is recommended: Mounting capacitors in series may be used for operating voltage exceeding Ur. See FELSIC in bank. ✪ Mounting solder type capacitors They may be used in any position. During mounting, avoid applying excessive force to capacitor pins or wires. There is a risk of damaging internal connections. After soldering and for the same reasons, do not try to move the capacitor's body. ✪ Electrolytes: safety rules Electrolytes used in EXXELIA capacitors are manufactured by EXXELIA. Main solvents are generally g butyrolactone and ethylene glycol, very stable high boiling point solvents. Ionic conductive salts in electrolyte induce a very weak acidity (pH 5 to 7). ✪ Environment In aluminium capacitors with liquid electrolyte there is no component showing a pollution risk, in small amounts, of air or water. EXXELIA is always involved in this security field particularly in using chemicals for electrolyte, without well-known risks. Dimethylformamide (DMF) dangerous solvent forbidden in several uses is completely excluded by EXXELIA,since 1990. There is no halogen compound such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC or FCKW in german) or polychlorobiphenyl (PCBPyralene) or pentabromodiphenylether or octabromodiphenylether. There is neither benzene, toluene or phenyl compound nor explosive such as picric acid, nor asbestos in plastic covers. All the capacitors made by EXXELIA since 1991, can be scrapped or used in raw materials recycling processes without special care in compliance with Community rules. EXXELIA aluminium capacitors with non-solid electrolyte are particularly suitable for different kinds of environment taking in account severity increasing laws. European directives 2003/11/EC, 2002/96/EC (WEEE) and 2002/95/EC (RoHS) applies to all EXXELIA capacitors including every solder type, manufactured with pure tin coated pins or wires, since at least January 2006. > See our capacitors in catalog