What you should know about Wound Magnetics Technologies ?
Discover the basic information about Wound Magnetics Technologies, to improve your choice
EXXELIA designs and manufactures magnetic components including wound magnetics, inductors, transformers, motors, sensors and actuators for high voltage, high temperature and power applications.
Products are optimized to meet the most demanding applications requirement thanks to a strong design expertise, EXXELIA masters High-Grade technologies: Chameleon Concept Magnetics (CCM), standard linear and toroidal, toroidal transfer molded technology (TT), SESI planar / Low-profile and aluminum foil winding.
> See our Wound Magnetics Technologies in catalog
Exxelia designs magnetics for most applications:
- Switch-mode power supply including new
- and unusual architectures
- 360-800Hz Power supply
- (single and multipulse)
- 50 Hz power supply
- Current and Voltage measurement
- Lighting - Ignition
- Pulse transformer (gate drive, data)
- Micro inductor
- Electromagnets etc.
Exxelia designs magnetics up to:
- 200kV dielectric strength
- 20kV operating voltage …
- 240°C operating temperature
- According to the main aerospace
- ESA ESCC 3201
- D0-160 etc
SWITCHED MODE POWE SUPPLY
Cross regulation in multi output Flyback converters
Exxelia has been working on this subject in order to understand the phenomenon, identify the cause(s) and find solutions to avoid the use of linear regulators consuming energy
The identification of a relevant magnetostatic model of the transformer and its electronic environment are necessary for analysis of the phenomenon into circuit simulation software like PSIM or PSPICE. This allows to evaluate the influence of the model parameters and the other components of the converter on the variability of output voltages.
The key point is then to link the product manufacturing technology to the parameters of the model, in order to reduce cross regulation thanks to the optimization of windings arrangement.
The work on this topic allows a precise control of the output voltages on the most sensitive windings.
Dual Active Bridge, small size & high efficiency
The dual active bridge is a topology more and more used to supply batteries because it allows bidirectional energy transfer with the network.
Exxelia is developing high reproducibility technology to integrate inductors in the transformer:
3 Transformers in each power supply
Each transformer incorporates virtual inductance Lk
15 kW combined output @ 100 kHz switching
Taps provide flexibility for 350 V / 700 V input & 28 V or 56 V output (up to 430 A)
Exxelia value proposition: Small size, high efficiency, competitive cost despite
multiple high current outputs and integrated inductors.
360-800Hz MULTI PULSE
Exxelia developed a specific knowledge to optimize the design of single and multi-pulse magnetics for 360 – 800 Hz power network.
ACCURATE MEASUREMENT TRANSFORMERS (0.1%) FOR CRITICAL APPLICATIONS
Real-time, detailed knowledge of the voltages and currents is becoming increasingly important to ensure the proper operation of electrical networks. This is as true for the aeronautics market as it is for the industrial market.
Measurement transformers, whether current or voltage, are sensors. They must faithfully transmit a signal level in a highly variable environment (excitation, frequency, temperature) which influences their characteristics.
Exxelia developed a designing method that takes into account all environmental conditions. The behavior of the sensor is modeled by a transfer function that depends on transformer characteristics and on the load resistance.
Depending on the application and the targeted accuracy, Exxelia defines the best operating point of the sensor by calculating the worst case errors with respect to the variability of the model parameters.
Exxelia designs sensors with an accuracy of up to 0.1%.
THERMAL MANAGEMENT, A PATH TO MINIATURIZATION
For Exxelia, better thermal management translates into miniaturization of the component.
Indeed, thanks to an accurate calculation of the maximum operating temperature, Exxelia can design the smallest component able to transfer a given power.
The calculation of this temperature requires the knowledge of the heating sources (core and copper losses) and the component thermal behavior.
Exxelia uses a calculation method to do the best use of core losses data and improve them by developing partnership with core manufacturer
The copper losses due to Eddy current are taken into account by Exxelia through the identification of the overriding causes and the use of the most relevant analytical approaches to evaluate them.
The calculation of the operating temperature from the losses requires to determine the thermal resistance, which varies according to the ambient temperature, the power dissipated and the exchange conditions with the environment.
Exxelia performs measurement campaigns to determine the thermal resistances and their variation for its qualified technologies and for most of the standard ferrite shapes. In particular, the influence of natural convection is taken into account to address products for Space.
When more detailed analysis is required, Exxelia has developed a unique thermal simulation software, based on finite element calculation and dedicated to magnetic components to make its use easier and faster.
HIGH VOLTAGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD CALCULATION
Exxelia developed specific design skills to anticipate voltage increase requested for aircraft and space embedded application. High voltage topic is mastered with both dedicated test equipment (up to 100kV) and electric field calculation knowhow.
Electric Field mitigation:
In high voltage applications, local high electric field E [kV/mm] can lead to a premature aging of intulating parts ou insulators? (Partial discharge) and finally to an electric failure.
Simulation in the design phase, using finite element calculations with a 2D or 3D electrostatic software allows Exxelia to reduce high field areas and increase lifetime.
Example: Electric Field, Iso-Voltage values
Custom High Voltage Transformer
Exxelia engineers use advanced finite-elements simulation software to model and analyse electromagnetic behaviour.
EXXELIA can provide a high added-value support for electromechanical devices optimization through electromagnetic and thermal calculations (weight reduction, torque increase, losses reduction, etc…):
• 2D and 3D calculations:
Magnetostatic: B[T], J[A/mm²], L matrix (function of current)
Electrostatic: E[kV/mm], C matrix
Eddy current (AC) in magneto-harmonic
2D transient coupled multiphysics (electric + magnetic + circuit)
• Specific analysis:
Optimization under constraints
CAD geometry and circuit import/export (step, Catia, Spice, … )
Some calculations: Torque [N.m], Force [N], Resistance [Ω], Losses[W], L matrix [H], C matrix [F]
Some applications: linear or angular electric motor, electromagnet, linear or angular actuator, proportional valves, position sensor, etc… Proportional Hydraulic Valve
Based on an extensive experience, Exxelia can offer the best topology dedicated to an application or look for the best performance within a given space:
Torque, field and geometrical optimization
> See our Wound Magnetics Technologies in catalog
How Exxelia supports the key processes ?
The cleaning of the PCB boards is evolving from solvent (as isopropylic alcohol,...) to highly alkaline water based cleaning medium.
EXXELIA has performed an extensive study to offer robust technologies to withstand these current cleaning processes. The qualification procedure has included thermal shock, burn in and
EXXELIA has defined gluing, marking, varnishing processes that allow the products to go through more than 5 cleaning cycles and operating up to 180°C.
Processes compliant to ESA and NASA outgassing standards have also been defined for products specified up to 140°C.
EXXELIA has qualified specific processes to ensure wire integrity for better insulation. The wire undergoes mechanical, chemical and thermal stresses during the winding and cabling process steps. EXXELIA has set up a dedicated process to reduce the impact of these manufacturing steps and improve the overall reliability of the wires and products.
EXXELIA offers several types of components: Surface Mounted Device, Through Hole or lead terminations products, system integrated components.
Products are available on trays and, upon request, on reels for easy pick and place, ESD compliant
EXXELIA products offer components compliant to IPC/JEDEC standard J-STD- 020 with TP = 260°C and tP = 30 seconds.
Exxelia is a manufacturer of complex passive components and precision subsystems focusing on highly demanding end-markets, applications and functions. Exxelia product portfolio includes wide ranges of capacitors, inductors, transformers, resistors, filters, position sensors, slip rings and high-precision mechanical parts serving numerous leading industrial areas such as aerospace, defense, medical, rail, energiy and telecommunications.
Thanks to extensive design capabilities and a robust development process, Exxelia is recognized for its ability to quickly evaluate application specific engineering challenges and provide cost-effective and efficient solutions. For requirements that cannot be met by our catalog products, we offer custom configurations: upgraded performance, custom geometries, robust packaging.
EXXELIA Magnetics business unit has more than 40 years experience in the design, industrialization and manufacturing of magnetics for Space, Civil Aviation, Defense, Oil & Gas, Medical, Railway and Industrial niche markets.
EXXELIA actively works in partnership with the customer from prototype phase to production series.
EXXELIA has several production sites including low cost factories. All Magnetics sites are EN/AS9100 qualified. EXXELIA can therefore offer the most competitive solution to the customer.
EXXELIA offers PCB mounted components, ruggedized medium power magnetics subassemblies as well as stators & rotor and actuators. EXXELIA has a large technology portfolio including High-Grade platforms for demanding market and a strong manufacturing heritage.
The customer benefits from EXXELIA design expertise and know-how for their design to specifications and built-to-print requests. Both catalog and custom products are available. The qualification of technological innovation and the definition of the related design rules allow EXXELIA to offer cost effective optimized solutions.
- Time to market:
Available qualified technologies for harsh environment
Strong heritage in Space
- Optimised solutions:
Co-design through partnership with technical teams
High expertise in complex designs
Knowledge of the applications
Industrialisation know how
- Cost effective solutions:
Reduced Non recurrent Cost, Low Cost Country Sites
- Obsolescence management.
> See our Wound Magnetics Technologies in catalog
EW SPACE, Constellation, SPACE 4.0:
EXXELIA is the right choice due to strong space heritage, qualified technologies and multiple choice of manufacturing locations: USA, Asia, North Africa, Europe.
Quality System & Validation Capabilities
EXXELIA masters, fully implements and maintains all the main international and customer standards, specifications, regulations and requirements for the design, manufacture, inspection and testing of magnetic components and for EHS and quality management:
ESA: ESCC 3201 family of specifications,
ESCC 20400, ESCC 20500, ESCC 23500
ESCC32/008, ESCC3201/009 & ESCC3201/010
QML ESCC3201/011 & ESCC3201/012
CNES: RNC-CNES-Q-ST-60102, RNC-CNES-Q-60103
USA - Japan: MIL-STD-981, MIL-PRF-27
Aeronautics and Military magnetics:
MIL-STD-981, MIL-PRF-27, MIL-HDBK-1553,
MIL-PRF-15305, MIL-PRF-21038, MIL-PRF-39010,
Environmental conditions and tests:
Europe: EUROCAE ED-14, ,
USA: RTCA DO-160, MIL-STD-202.
Environment, health and safety:
EC 1907/2006 (REACH), 2002/95/EC (RoHS)
EXXELIA is manufacturing RoHS products by default. Non RoHS should be specifically requested.
EXXELIA maintains a comprehensive and up to date data base of all chemicals to closely follow the REACH status.
EN/AS9100 and 1509001 family of standards
Major aerospace customers standards.
A “Game Changer” Rectangular Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor, Called Cubisic SLP
Cubisic SLP is the new rectangular aluminum electrolytic capacitor from EXXELIA, a world leader in manufacturing and designing capacitors. Their products are known for their high performance and reliability, which has made them the choice of many of the world's leading avionics engineering companies. However, they were looking for a new, more reliable capacitor that could withstand even greater vibration and altitude than any previous capacitor. They needed a stronger, more reliable product with a life expectancy that matched the customers' projects. Product description : Cubisic SLP is among the industry's first aluminum electrolytic capacitors designed with flat technology. The result is a lighter, smaller rectangular shape with increased surface area, which improves its capacity. As a result, it can accommodate more energy at almost any altitude or vibration level. This makes Cubisic SLP ideal for applications where added durability is required, such as cockpits and power generation functions on aircrafts, along with being well-suited for radars and laser systems in up to 50G vibration conditions and 92K feet altitude resistance. ✅ Low profile printed circuit mounting ✅ Possible mounting with 45 x 12 bracket (A691057) ✅ Possible thermal dissipation per conduction through a lower and upper surface ✅ Switch mode power supplies, impulse current ✅ Withstands more than 92,000 feet altitude ✅ Sleeve optional Cubisic SLP comes in three sizes, is made with high-quality aluminum foil and impregnate with electrolyte. It has 2 terminals: anode, cathode. What makes Cubisic SLP so different? An example of one of the advantages of this technology is that designing a capacitor with a traditional cylindrical shape, means that 2/3 of its volume is empty, compared to this new flat design. As a result, more capacitors are packed into the same volume, thus increasing the density. What’s a Rectangular Aluminum electrolytic capacitor, and why is that important? What’s, a Rectangular Aluminum electrolytic capacitor : In short (no pun intended), a rectangular electrolytic capacitor is one of those components that keeps your electronics running safely, your ship floating, and your aircraft operating properly. A Rectangular electrolytic capacitor is a component that essentially stores electrical energy in the form of an ‘electrolyte’. It’s made up of three layers: two aluminum sheets separated by an electrolyte solution and encased in a steel or porcelain container. And as the name implies, it’s shaped like a rectangle. It's widely used in different industries because of its reliable and cost-effective protection, which makes it the go-to component for many commercial, industrial, and aerospace uses. Rectangular aluminum electrolytic capacitors are mostly used in military aircrafts, missiles, and nautical transportation, as well as space navigation systems. In these applications, reliability is crucial for the safety of millions of people, so it is essential to choose a reliable product that offers high performance and quality. So if you find yourself with any of those use cases and/or engineering projects on your hands that require high performance and quality under extreme environments, look no further than this capacitor! Why is that important? As an example, when a military fighter jet accelerates, it can experience up to three times the force of gravity. While this is an impressive feat, consider what it does to the components in the vehicle. One such component is a capacitor. While it might seem like just a small piece of circuitry, capacitors are responsible for a variety of functions in your fighter jet, including: > Powering the radar antenna > Controlling engine performance > Controlling flight-related functions like fuel injection and landing gear operation This is because of the way they deal with heat buildup, which is an issue with capacitors in high-performance vehicles, especially on aircrafts where rapid acceleration can cause significant damage to any component. That's helpful in the cockpit, where the controls are exposed to this kind of force; a control that has to withstand up to three times the force of gravity will last longer than one that isn't designed for this. In other places on a military jet—such as power generation functions—the same principle applies: if something is going to be exposed to extreme forces (like vibration or acceleration), it needs to be strong enough not to break easily. That's why these capacitors are a great choice: they can handle extreme conditions without losing their effectiveness over time. That's why Exxelia takes the time to test every single capacitor we sell to our customers. How does its ability to withstand varying vibration levels and altitudes make a difference to the aerospace industry? What makes a rectangular aluminum electrolytic capacitor so effective for aerospace companies? The answer: They're made from high-quality material—pure and simple. But the difference between standard capacitors and those for the aerospace industry goes far beyond that. For the aerospace industry, the ideal capacitor would endure extreme temperatures, have a wide range of voltage tolerances, and withstand varying vibration levels, all while maintaining its effectiveness at an altitude of 19,000 meters—which is where Cubisic SLP comes in. As an electrolytic capacitor with an expanded operating temperature range and a very high resistance against vibration and altitude changes, this product has been able to make a huge difference in how well aircrafts can stay in control. Not only does it help prevent power outages, but also it helps avionics to stay functional when they are subjected to drastically changing conditions. Cubisic SLP capacitors are designed to handle extreme environments, which makes them incredibly versatile—and incredibly useful. From aeronautics to medicine, these capacitors can help your projects meet just about any challenges. Where can I find out more about EXXELIA’s Cubisic SLP range? Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors cubisic SLP Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors cubisic HTLP Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors alsic 145 20g Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors alsic 20g Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors cubisic lp Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors cubisic TECHNICAL PAPERS (Electrical characterization of cubisic SLP capacitors) DOWNLOAD DATASHEET
What you should know about Ceramic Capacitors ?
▲ What you should know about Ceramic Capacitors ? 1. Materials expert For 50 years and as a market leader, EXXELIA’s comprehensive knowledge of the materials properties and performances have enabled us to design capacitors in Porcelain, NPO, BX, 2C1, BP, X7R and –2200ppm/°C ceramics. > See our capacitors in catalog 2. Custom Designs Our catalog products don’t meet your application? Based on the valuable experience accumulated over the design of 2,000+ specific ceramic capacitors, you can trust EXXELIA to define a qualitative custom solution in a time effective manner. 3. No Obsolescence Choosing a standard or custom EXXELIA product means you won’t have to worry about obsolescence. 4. Typical Applications Aerospace & Defense: cockpit panels, flight control, radio systems, missile guidance systems… Space: military and commercial satellites, launcher… Medical: MRI, external defibrillators, implantable devices… Telecommunications: base stations… Oil and gas: drilling tools, MWD, LWD, wellheads… 5. ISO 9001 And AS9100C Quality is at the core of Exxelia’s corporate culture. Each sites has its own certifications. 6. Certifications Capacitors manufactured by EXXELIA comply with American and European standards and meet the requirements of many international standards. For Space qualified parts (ESA QPL), please refer to our catalog «Ceramic capacitors for Space applications». 7. Quality & Reliability EXXELIA is committed to design and manufacture high quality and reliability products. The test cycles reproducing the most adverse operating conditions over extended periods (up to 10 000 hours) have logged to date well over 5.109 hours/°Component. Failure rate data can be provided upon request. 8. Conflict minerals EXXELIA is committed to an approach based on «Conflict Minerals Compliance». This US SEC rule demands complete traceability and a control mechanism for the mineral procurement chain, encouraging importers to buy only «certified» ore. We have discontinued relations with suppliers that procure from the Democratic Republic of the Congo or an adjoining country. 9. Environment EXXELIA is committed to applying a robust environmental policy, from product design through to shipment. To control its environmental footprint and reconcile this with the company’ functional imperatives, our environmental policy provides for the reduction or elimination of hazardous substances. We also focus on compliance with European Union directives and regulations, notably REACH and RoHS. 10. RoHS Compliancy SMD CAPACITORS The capacitor terminations are generally protected by a nickel barrier formed by electrolytic deposit. This barrier gives chip capacitors leaching performance far exceeding the requirements of all applicable standards. The nickel barrier guarantees a minimum resistance to soldering heat for a period of 1 minute at 260°C in a tin-lead (60/40) or tin-lead-silver (62/36/2) bath without noticeable alteration to the solderability. It also allows repeated soldering-unsoldering and the longer soldering times required by reflow techniques. However nickel barrier amplifies thermal shock and is not recommended for chip sizes equal or greater than CNC Y (30 30) - (C 282 to C 288 - CNC 80 to CNC 94). LEADED COMPONENTS As well as for SMD products, leaded capacitors ranges can also be RoHS. These products, which are characterized by the suffix «W» added to the commercial type, are naturally compatible with the soldering alloys used in RoHS mounting technology. The connections coating is generally an alloy SnAg (with a maximum of 4% Ag). However, on a few products that EXXELIA will precise on request, the coating is pure silver. 11. MLCC Structure 12. Equivalent circuit Capacitor is a complex component combining resistive, inductive and capacitive phenomena. A simplified schematic for the equivalent circuit is: 13. Dielectric characteristics Insulation Resistance (IR) is the resistance measured under DC voltage across the terminals of the capacitor and consists principally of the parallel resistance shown in the equivalent circuit. As capacitance values and hence the area of dielectric increases, the IR decreases and hence the product (C x IR) is often specified in Ω.F or MΩ.µF. The Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) is the sum of the resistive terms which generate heating when capacitor is used under AC voltage at a given frequency (f). Dissipation factor (DF) is the ration of the apparent power input will turn to heat in the capacitor: DF = 2π f C ESR When a capacitor works under AC voltage, heat power loss (P), expressed in Watt, is equal to: P = 2π f C Vrms2 DF The series inductance (Ls) is due to the currents running through the electrodes. It can distort the operation of the capacitor at high frequency where the impedance (Z) is given as: Z = Rs + j (Ls.q - 1⁄(C.q)) with q = 2πf When frequency rises, the capacitive component of capacitors is gradually canceled up to the resonance frequency, where : Z = Rs and LsC.q2 = 1 Above this frequency the capacitor behaves like an inductor. Manufacturing steps > See our capacitors in catalog SMD environmental tests Ceramic chip capacitors for SMD are designed to meet test requirements of CECC 32100 and NF C 93133 standards as specified below in compliance with NF C 20700 and IEC 68 standards: Solderability: NF C 20758, 260°C, bath 62/36/2. Adherence: 5N force. Vibration fatigue test: NF C 20706, 20 g, 10 Hz to 2,000 Hz, 12 cycles of 20 minutes each. Rapid temperature change: NF C 20714, –55°C to + 125°C, 5 cycles. Combined climatic test: IEC 68-2-38. Damp heat: NF C 20703, 93 %, H.R., 40°C. Endurance test: 1,000 hours, 1.5 URC, 125°C. > See our capacitors in catalog STORAGE OF CHIP CAPACITORS TINNED OR NON TINNED CHIP CAPACITORS Storage must be in a dry environment at a temperature of 20°C with a relative humidity below 50 %, or preferably in a packaging enclosing a desiccant. STORAGE IN INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT: 2 years for tin dipped chip capacitors, 18 months for tin electroplated chip capacitors, 2 years for non tinned chip capacitors, 3 years for gold plated chip capacitors. STORAGE IN CONTROLLED NEUTRAL NITROGEN ENVIRONMENT: 4 years for tin dipped or electroplated chip capacitors, 4 years for non tinned chip capacitors, 5 years for gold plated chip capacitors. Storage duration should be considered from delivery date and not from batch manufacture date. The tests carried out at final acceptance stage (solderability, susceptibility to solder heat) enable to assess the compatibility to surface mounting of the chips. LEAD STYLES SOLDERING ADVICES FOR REFLOW SOLDERING Large chips above size 2225 are not recommended to be mounted on epoxy board due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between ceramic capacitor and epoxy. Where larger sizes are required, it is recommended to use components with ribbon or other adapted leads so as to absorb thermo-mechanical strains. RECOMMENDED FOOTPRINT FOR SMD CAPACITORS Ceramic is by nature a material which is sensitive both thermally and mechanically. Stresses caused by the physical and thermal properties of the capacitors, substrates and solders are attenuated by the leads. Wave soldering is unsuitable for sizes larger than 2220 and for the higher ends of capacitance ranges due to possible thermal shock (capacitance values given upon request). Infrared and vapor phase reflow, are preferred for high reliability applications as inherent thermo-mechanical strains are lower than those inherent to wave soldering. SOLDERING ADVICES FOR IRON SOLDERING Attachment with a soldering iron is discouraged due to ceramic brittleness and the process control limitations. In the event that a soldering iron must be used, the following precautions should be observed: Use a substrate with chip footprints big enough to allow putting side by side one end of the capacitor and the iron tip without any contact between this tip and the component, place the capacitor on this footprint, heat the substrate until the capacitor’s temperature reaches 150°C minimum (preheating step, maximum 1°C per second), place the hot iron tip (a flat tip is preferred) on the footprint without, touching the capacitor. Use a regulated iron with a 30 watts maximum, power. The recommended temperature of the iron is 270 ±10°C. The temperature gap between the capacitor and the iron tip must not exceed 120°C, leave the tip on the footprint for a few seconds in order to increase locally the footprint’s temperature, use a cored wire solder and put it down on the iron tip. In a preferred way use Sn/Pb/Ag 62/36/2 alloy, wait until the solder fillet is formed on the capacitor’s termination, take away iron and wire solder, wait a few minutes so that the substrate and capacitor come back down to the preheating temperature, solder the second termination using the same procedure as the first, let the soldered component cool down slowly to avoid any thermal shock. 14. Packaging TAPE AND REEL The films used on the reels correspond to standard IEC 60286-3. Films are delivered on reels in compliance with document IEC 286-3 dated 1991. Minimum quantity is 250 chips. Maximum quantities per reel are as follows: Super 8 reel - Ø 180: 2,500 chips. Super 8 reel - Ø 330: 10,000 chips. Super 12 reel - Ø 180: 1,000 chips. Reel marking complies with CECC 32100 standard: Model. Rated capacitance. Capacitance tolerance. Rated voltage. Batch number. 15. Dimensional characteristics of chips tray packages 16. High Q Capacitors Tape and Reel Packaging Specifications 17. EIA standard capacitance values Following EIA standard, the values and multiples that are indicated in the chart below can be ordered. E48, E96 series and intermediary values are available upon request. 18. EIA capacitance code The capacitance is expressed in three digit codes and in units of pico Farads (pF). The first and second digits are significant figures of the capacitance value and the third digit identifies the multiplier. For capacitance value < 10pF, R designates a decimal point. See examples below: 19. Part marking voltage codes Use the following voltage code chart for part markings: 20. Part marking Tolerance codes Use the following tolerance code chart for part markings: 21. Reliability levels Exxelia proposes different reliability levels for the ceramic capacitors for both NPO and X7R ceramics. As the world’s leading manufacturer of specific passive components, we stand apart through our ability to quickly evaluate the application specific engineering challenges and provide a cost-effective and efficient solutions. For requirements that cannot be met by catalog products, we offer leading edge solutions in custom configuration: custom geometries, packaging, characteristics, all is possible thanks to our extensive experience and robust development process, while maintaining the highest level of reliability. Where necessary, special testing is done to verify requirements, such as low dielectric absorption, ultra-high insulation resistance, low dissipation factor, stability under temperature cycling or under specified environmental conditions, etc. > See our capacitors in catalog