Exxelia Ohmcraft Resistors serve Neurodiagnostics of Newborn Patients

ROCHESTER, N.Y., January 4, 2021—Neurodiagnostic tools are used every day in neonatal critical care units to monitor, diagnose and treat impairments in newborns.

This type of equipment successfully detects disorders in the brain, nerves and muscles that have the potential to impact the child’s long-term health. To ensure the reliability of this testing, global leaders in the manufacturing of neurodiagnostic technologies leverage Exxelia Ohmcraft’s custom, high voltage surface mount resistors in their equipment.

Exxelia Ohmcraft has the ability to provide high voltage resistors in a small form factor, which is essential for the smaller multi-channel patient monitoring equipment utilized in hospitals today. Additionally, the low noise of Exxelia Ohmcraft’s resistors is critical to eliminating interference that could impact the biosignals being transmitted from the newborn patient to the monitoring equipment.

“By utilizing our resistors, leading neurodiagnostics manufacturers have been able to develop cutting-edge monitoring and testing solutions that improve outcomes and enhance the care of the youngest and most vulnerable patients,” said Eric Van Wormer, Vice President of Exxelia Ohmcraft. “We are proud to partner with many of the world’s top medical device manufacturers in the design of many products that are crucial to the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of so many diseases and conditions.”

Exxelia Ohmcraft’s technology utilizes the proprietary Micropen electronic printing system to “print” precise, narrow, serpentine lines with resistive ink on a ceramic substrate, producing higher performance resistors over a wider range of values on a smaller surface area than is possible with conventional film resistor technology.

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Published on 04 Jan 2021 by Rebecca Charles

Exxelia at Eurosatory

State-of-the art absolute optical encoders Exxelia has acquired deep expertise in the development of contactless position sensors of several type: absolute and incremental optical encoders, magnetic technology and inductive sensors. Several ranges of state-of-the-art absolute optical encoders will be showcased at the company booth - Hall 5A booth# E543. Absolute optical encoders are position sensors that use optical signals to identify an absolute angular position. They provide the highest resolution, operating speed reliability as well as long life operation in most demanding environments. Exxelia ranges of absolute optical encoders offer very high performance levels for a very small footprint: high precision (<30arcsc.), high resolution (up to 21 bits), extreme thinness (10mm) and EMI EMC compatibility. With their compact design, Exxelia miniature encoders meet the requirements of the most demanding application such as aerospace, defense, medical, oil & mining industries. Various protocols are available to match with any application.  Exxelia encoders can be easily combined with other functions such as slip rings to provide customers turkey solutions.   Two new ranges of MIL-qualified wet tantalum capacitors: MIL39006/22 & MIL39006/25 The recently introduced ranges of MIL-qualified tantalum capacitors will be showcased on the company booth. MIL 39006/22 and MIL 39006/25 respectively equivalent to CLR79 and CLR81 types featuring hermetically sealed cylindrical tantalum cases and axial leads are available in T1, T2 T3 and T4 cases with extended capacitance and voltage ratings. MIL 39006/22 is qualified for voltages from 6V to 125V and provides from 1200µF @6V to 56µF @125V. MIL 39006/25 is qualified for voltages from 25V to 125V and delivers from 680µF @25V to 82µF @125V. Both ranges combine high energy density with a large operating temperature range of -55°C - +125°C and H vibrations and shocks resistance.  

High Voltage Resistor Selection Checklist

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Project Specification Analysis Application Analysis ✅ Aviation Operational Environment: High altitudes, varying atmospheric pressures, and temperatures. Key Requirements: Vibration Resistance: Resistors must withstand continuous vibrations. Temperature Variability: Functionality across a broad temperature range. Technical Calculations: Vibration Stress = (Force/Area) * [1 - (Damping Coefficient * Frequency)] ✅ Space Operational Environment: Extreme temperatures, vacuum conditions, and radiation. Key Requirements: Radiation Hardness: Resistance to ionizing radiation effects. High Reliability: Low failure rates due to inaccessibility for repairs. Technical Calculations: Absorbed Dose (Gray) = Energy (Joules) / Mass (Kilograms) ✅ Defense Operational Environment: Battlefield conditions, including exposure to extreme elements and potential electromagnetic interference. Key Requirements: Ruggedness: High durability under physical and environmental stress. EMI/RFI Shielding: Protection against electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference. Technical Calculations: Shielding Effectiveness (SE) = 20 * log₁₀(E₁ / E₂), where E₁ and E₂ are electric field strengths. ✅ Medical Operational Environment: Sterile, controlled, and sensitive to electronic noise. Key Requirements: Precision and Stability: High accuracy for critical measurements. Biocompatibility: Safe for use in or near the human body. Technical Calculations: Safety Margin = Desired Performance / Actual Performance ✅ Energy Operational Environment: Power plants, substations, and renewable energy installations. Key Requirements: High Power Handling: Capacity to manage large currents and voltages. Surge Tolerance: Ability to withstand electrical surges. Technical Calculations: Thermal Dissipation = Power (Watts) = Voltage² / Resistance (Ohms) ✅ Mass Transportation Operational Environment: Trains, buses, and other public transport systems, often outdoor. Key Requirements: Robustness: Durability in fluctuating environmental conditions. Consistency: Reliable performance under continuous use. Technical Calculations: Mechanical Stress = Stress = Force / Area, considering dynamic loads during transportation. ✅ Telecommunications Operational Environment: Data centers, transmission stations, and communication devices. Key Requirements: Signal Integrity: Minimal impact on signal quality. Power Efficiency: Optimized for high-frequency operation. Technical Calculations: Attenuation (dB) = 10 * log₁₀(Power_in / Power_out) ✅ Industry Operational Environment: Factories, automation systems, and harsh industrial settings. Key Requirements: Environmental Resistance: Withstand dust, chemicals, and mechanical stress. Load Capacity: Suitable for high-load and continuous operations. Technical Calculations: Load Capacity = Load (Watts) = Voltage² / Resistance, ensuring capacity for industrial applications. Electrical Requirements ✅ Voltage Range Description: The range of voltage that the resistor must handle during normal operation. Key Considerations: Maximum Operating Voltage: The highest voltage the resistor can withstand without degradation. Minimum Operating Voltage: The lowest functional voltage for the resistor. Technical Calculations: Voltage Stress = Applied Voltage / Rated Voltage Safety Margin = (Rated Voltage - Maximum Operating Voltage) / Rated Voltage ✅ Current Profile Description: Analysis of current levels that the resistor will encounter, including average and peak currents. Key Considerations: Average Operating Current: The typical current flowing through the resistor under normal conditions. Peak Current: The maximum current that may flow through the resistor, often in surge conditions. Technical Calculations: Power (Watts) = Current² (Amps) × Resistance (Ohms) Thermal Management: Determining heat dissipation needs based on current flow ✅ Power Dissipation Description: The ability of the resistor to dissipate energy in the form of heat. Key Considerations: Power Rating: The maximum power that the resistor can safely dissipate. Overload Conditions: The resistor&#39;s behavior under temporary power overloads. Technical Calculations: Derating Curve Analysis: Adjusting the power rating based on operating temperature Heat Generated (Joules) = I²Rt, where I is current, R is resistance, and t is time. ✅ Resistance Value and Tolerance Description: Specifies the resistor’s nominal resistance value and permissible deviation. Key Considerations: Nominal Resistance: The intended resistance value. Tolerance: The allowable deviation from the nominal resistance, expressed in percentage. Technical Calculations: Tolerance = (Actual Resistance - Nominal Resistance) / Nominal Resistance × 100% Worst-Case Scenario Analysis: Considering the extremes of the tolerance range in design calculations ✅ Frequency Response Description: The behavior of the resistor at different frequencies, especially in high-frequency applications. Key Considerations: Inductive and Capacitive Components: These can affect resistor behavior at high frequencies. Skin Effect: The tendency of alternating current to distribute itself unevenly within the conductor. Technical Calculations: Reactance (Ohms) = 2πfL for inductance, 1/(2πfC) for capacitance. Frequency Impact Analysis: Assessing how frequency variations affect the resistor&#39;s performance ✅ Temperature Coefficient Description: The rate at which the resistor&#39;s resistance value changes with temperature. Key Considerations: Positive/Negative Temperature Coefficient: Determines if resistance increases or decreases with temperature. Stability Over Temperature Range: The resistor&#39;s ability to maintain its characteristics across temperatures. Technical Calculations: ΔR/R₀ = α × ΔT, where ΔR is the change in resistance, R₀ is the original resistance , α is the temperature coefficient, and ΔT is the change in temperature.   2. Resistor Type and Material Selection   ✅ Resistor Composition Description: The physical and chemical composition of the resistor, which determines its properties and suitability for different applications. Key Types and Considerations: ➡ Metal Film Resistors: Characteristics: Good temperature stability, low noise, and high precision. Usage: Ideal for precision applications requiring stable performance.   ➡ Carbon Film Resistors: Characteristics: Inexpensive, widely available, but with larger temperature coefficients. Usage: General-purpose applications where cost is a factor.   ➡ Wirewound Resistors: Characteristics: High power ratings, excellent stability, but inductive. Usage: High-power applications, precision circuits, but not suitable for high-frequency circuits.   ➡ Thick and Thin Film Resistors: Characteristics: Versatile, with a balance between performance and cost. Usage: Common in consumer electronics, telecommunications, and automotive sectors.   ➡ Foil Resistors: Characteristics: Extremely precise and stable, low temperature coefficients. Usage: High-precision applications, calibration equipment, and laboratory standards. ✅ Electrical Characteristics Description: The key electrical properties of resistors that define their performance in a circuit. Key Characteristics: ➡ Resistance Value: Consideration: Selecting the nominal resistance value as per circuit requirements. Calculation: Based on Ohm’s Law and circuit design parameters.   ➡ Power Rating: Consideration: The maximum power the resistor can dissipate without damage. Calculation: Power (Watts) = Voltage (Volts) × Current (Amps); also consider derating factors based on temperature.   ➡ Voltage Rating: Consideration: The maximum voltage that can be applied across the resistor. Calculation: Linked to the resistor’s size and construction; generally provided by the manufacturer.   ➡ Tolerance: Consideration: The permissible deviation from the nominal resistance value. Calculation: Specified as a percentage (e.g., ±1%, ±5%). ✅ Material Properties Description: The specific properties of materials used in resistor manufacturing, which influence performance under different conditions. Key Properties: ➡ Thermal Conductivity: Affects the resistor&#39;s ability to dissipate heat.   ➡ Temperature Coefficient: Influences how resistance changes with temperature.   ➡ Corrosion Resistance: Determines longevity and reliability in harsh environments.   ➡ Mechanical Strength: Resistance to physical stress and vibration. ✅ Construction and Design Description: How resistors are constructed, including their physical design, which impacts their performance and application. Key Considerations: Surface Mount vs. Through-Hole: Smaller, suitable for automated assembly; preferred in compact electronics. Larger, easy for hand assembly; used in applications requiring higher power handling. Encapsulation and Coating: Protects against environmental factors like moisture, dust, and chemicals. Lead Configuration and Materials: Influences mechanical stability and ease of soldering.   3. Performance Parameters Analysis   ✅ Electrical Tolerance Description: The degree to which the actual resistance value can deviate from the nominal value. Key Considerations: Tolerance Levels: Common tolerances are ±1%, ±5%, and ±10%. Precision applications require tighter tolerances. Impact on Performance: Affects the accuracy and predictability of circuit performance. Technical Calculations: Tolerance = (Actual Resistance - Nominal Resistance) / Nominal Resistance × 100% Worst-Case Scenario Analysis: Evaluating circuit function under maximum tolerance deviation ✅ Temperature Coefficient Description: The rate at which the resistor&#39;s resistance value changes with temperature. Key Considerations: Positive/Negative Coefficient: Positive means resistance increases with temperature, and vice versa. Stability Over Temperature Range: Essential for applications with wide temperature variations. Technical Calculations: ΔR/R₀ = α × ΔT, where ΔR is the change in resistance, R₀ is the original resistance, α is the temperature coefficient, and ΔT is the change in temperature. ✅ Frequency Response Description: The behavior of the resistor at different frequencies. Key Considerations: Inductive/Capacitive Effects: Impact on the resistor&#39;s performance at high frequencies. Skin Effect: The tendency for AC current to concentrate near the surface of the conductor. Technical Calculations: Reactance (Ohms) = 2πfL for inductance, 1/(2πfC) for capacitance. Frequency Impact Analysis: Assessing how frequency variations affect performance ✅ Noise Characteristics Description: The intrinsic electrical noise generated by the resistor. Key Considerations: Thermal Noise: Generated due to thermal agitation of electrons, dependent on temperature and resistance. Voltage Coefficient: Noise variation with applied voltage. Technical Calculations: V_noise = sqrt(4kTRΔf), where k is Boltzmann&#39;s constant, T is temperature, R is resistance , and Δf is bandwidth. ✅ Power Rating and Derating Description: The maximum power a resistor can dissipate without damage. Key Considerations: Rated Power: Determined at a specific ambient temperature, usually 70°C. Derating Curve: Power rating decreases as operating temperature increases. Technical Calculations: Power (Watts) = Voltage (Volts) × Current (Amps) Derating Factor: Based on manufacturer’s derating curve, typically a linear reduction with temperature ✅ Pulse Load Handling Description: The resistor&#39;s ability to withstand transient or pulse loads. Key Considerations: Pulse Withstand Capability: Resistors must handle energy spikes without damage. Energy Rating: The amount of energy a resistor can absorb in a pulse. Technical Calculations: Energy (Joules) = ½ × C × V², where C is the capacitance and V is the voltage. ✅ Environmental and Mechanical Stability Description: Resistance to environmental and mechanical stresses. Key Considerations: Vibration and Shock Resistance: Essential for applications in harsh mechanical environments. Environmental Resistances: Performance under varying humidity, temperature, and chemical exposure. Technical Calculations: Stress Analysis: Based on mechanical load and mounting considerations Environmental Testing: Following industry standards (e.g., MIL-STD for military applications) ✅ Reliability and Longevity Description: The expected operational life and failure rate of the resistor. Key Considerations: Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF): An indicator of reliability over time. Wear-Out Mechanisms: Factors leading to degradation, such as temperature and voltage stress. Technical Calculations: MTBF Estimation: Based on historical data and stress testing results   4. Physical and Environmental Suitability   ✅ Mechanical Design Constraints Description: The physical dimensions and construction features of the resistor that must be compatible with the application. Key Considerations: Size and Footprint: Matching the physical space available in the device or circuit. Mounting Method: Surface mount or through-hole, affecting the mechanical stability and ease of assembly. Technical Aspects: Space Utilization: Calculation of space requirements based on component dimensions. Mechanical Stress Analysis: Stress = Force / Area; considering the impact of assembly and operation. ✅ Thermal Management Description: The ability of the resistor (and its environment) to handle heat generated during operation. Key Considerations: Heat Dissipation: Efficient thermal management to prevent overheating. Cooling Requirements: Need for additional cooling solutions like heat sinks or airflow. Technical Aspects: Thermal Resistance: Thermal Resistance (°C/W) = (T_junction - T_ambient) / Power Dissipated. Heat Sink Efficiency: Based on heat sink material and design. ✅ Environmental Resistance Description: The resistor&#39;s ability to withstand environmental factors such as humidity, temperature extremes, and corrosive atmospheres. Key Considerations: Humidity Resistance: Operation in high humidity without performance degradation. Temperature Extremes: Functionality across the intended operational temperature range. Corrosion Resistance: Suitability for use in potentially corrosive environments. Technical Aspects: Accelerated Life Testing: Simulating environmental conditions to test durability. Corrosion Rate Calculation: Corrosion Rate = Weight Loss / (Area × Time × Density). ✅ Durability and Lifespan Description: The overall robustness and expected operational life of the resistor under normal and stress conditions. Key Considerations: Material Fatigue and Wear: Long-term effects of operational stress on materials. Life Expectancy: Predicted lifespan based on construction and environmental exposure. Technical Aspects: Fatigue Analysis: Fatigue Life = (Stress Range / Fatigue Strength) × Cycles to Failure. Arrhenius Equation for Lifespan Prediction: Rate = A × e^(-Ea/(kT)), where Ea is activation energy, k is Boltzmann&#39;s constant, and T is temperature. ✅ Compliance with Standards and Regulations Description: Adherence to industry-specific standards and environmental regulations. Key Considerations: Industry Standards: Compliance with relevant standards (e.g., IEC, IEEE, MIL-STD). Environmental Regulations: Meeting requirements like RoHS for hazardous substances. Technical Aspects: Certification Verification: Ensuring the resistor meets specified standards. Regulatory Assessment: Evaluating components for compliance with environmental and safety regulations. ✅ Specialized Application Needs Description: Additional considerations for resistors used in specialized applications. Key Considerations: Vibration and Shock Absorption: For applications involving movement or mechanical impact. EMI/RFI Shielding: In environments with high electromagnetic or radio-frequency interference. Technical Aspects: Vibration Isolation Design: Calculating isolation requirements based on application. Shielding Effectiveness: SE = 20 * log₁₀(E₁ / E₂); measuring the effectiveness of EMI/RFI shielding.   5. Safety and Regulatory Compliance   ✅ Voltage and Power Safety Margins Description: Ensuring that resistors can handle voltages and power levels beyond their nominal ratings to account for unexpected surges or spikes. Key Considerations: Voltage Rating: The maximum voltage a resistor can handle; should be higher than the maximum system voltage. Power Rating: The ability of the resistor to dissipate power; should include a safety margin above the expected maximum. Technical Aspects: Overload Testing: Testing resistors at elevated voltages and power levels to ensure robustness. Safety Margin Calculation: Safety Margin = (Rated Value - Maximum System Value) / Rated Value × 100%. ✅ Certification and Standards Compliance Description: Adherence to international and national standards that ensure safety, reliability, and quality. Key Considerations: Industry Standards: Compliance with standards like IEEE, IEC, UL, etc., depending on the application. Specific Regulations: Adherence to sector-specific regulations (e.g., automotive, medical, military). Technical Aspects: Certification Verification: Checking for certifications from recognized standards organizations. Regulatory Compliance Testing: Conducting or reviewing tests that demonstrate compliance with relevant standards. ✅ Environmental and Health Regulations Description: Ensuring that resistor manufacturing and operation comply with environmental and health safety standards. Key Considerations: RoHS Compliance: Restriction of Hazardous Substances in electronic components. REACH Compliance: Regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals. Technical Aspects: Material Analysis: Assessing materials used in resistors for restricted substances. Compliance Documentation: Maintaining records and certifications proving compliance. ✅ Quality Assurance Protocols Description: Implementing quality control measures throughout the manufacturing and testing processes. Key Considerations: ISO Certifications: Compliance with ISO quality management standards (e.g., ISO 9001). In-House Testing: Rigorous testing protocols during manufacturing to ensure consistent quality. Technical Aspects: Quality Control Processes: Establishment of standard operating procedures for quality assurance. Testing and Inspection Metrics: Defining and applying metrics for quality evaluation. ✅ Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Description: Systematically evaluating potential failure modes of resistors and their impact on the larger system. Key Considerations: Identify Potential Failure Modes: Understanding how a resistor might fail (e.g., open circuit, short circuit) and the likelihood of these events. Assess Impact on System Performance: Evaluating the consequences of each failure mode on the system&#39;s operation. Technical Aspects: FMEA Procedure: Creating detailed FMEA charts that list potential failures, their causes, effects, and severity. Risk Priority Number (RPN) Calculation: RPN = Severity × Occurrence × Detection. ✅ Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Considerations Description: Managing the risks associated with electrostatic discharge, which can damage electronic components. Key Considerations: ESD Sensitivity: Understanding the susceptibility of resistors to ESD damage. ESD Protection Measures: Implementing handling and packaging practices to mitigate ESD risks. Technical Aspects: ESD Testing: Conducting tests like the Human Body Model (HBM) to assess ESD robustness. Grounding and Shielding Strategies: Developing procedures for safe handling and storage. 6. Longevity and Reliability Assessments ✅ Life Cycle Analysis Description: Estimating the operational lifespan of resistors under normal and stress conditions. Key Considerations: Operational Lifespan: Predicted duration of effective performance under typical use. Stress-Induced Wear: Impact of environmental and electrical stress on lifespan. Technical Aspects: Accelerated Aging Tests: Simulating long-term use to predict lifespan. Arrhenius Model for Lifetime Prediction: Lifetime ∝ e^(−Activation Energy / (Boltzmann Constant × Temperature)). ✅ Reliability Testing Description: Conducting tests to verify the reliability of resistors under various conditions. Key Considerations: Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF): The average time expected between failures in a population of resistors. Failure Rate Analysis: Evaluating the rate at which resistors are expected to fail. Technical Aspects: Environmental Stress Screening (ESS): Exposing resistors to extreme conditions to identify early failures. Statistical Reliability Analysis: Using statistical methods to estimate failure rates and MTBF. ✅ Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Description: Systematically examining potential failure modes of resistors and assessing their impact. Key Considerations: Potential Failure Modes: Identifying how a resistor might fail (e.g., open circuit, short circuit). Effects on System Operation: Understanding the consequences of each failure mode. Technical Aspects: FMEA Chart Creation: Developing detailed charts that list potential failures, causes, and effects. Risk Assessment: Calculating Risk Priority Number (RPN) to prioritize risk mitigation efforts. ✅ Environmental and Mechanical Stress Testing Description: Testing resistors’ performance under various environmental and mechanical stresses. Key Considerations: Temperature Cycling: Exposing resistors to temperature extremes. Vibration and Shock Tests: Assessing mechanical robustness. Technical Aspects: Test Protocols: Following industry-standard test procedures (e.g., MIL-STD, IEC). Stress Test Analysis: Evaluating changes in performance characteristics post-testing. ✅ Quality and Manufacturing Consistency Description: Ensuring that the manufacturing process consistently produces resistors of high quality. Key Considerations: Quality Control Processes: Implementing rigorous quality checks during production. Material Consistency: Ensuring uniformity in materials used for manufacturing. Technical Aspects: Statistical Process Control (SPC): Monitoring production processes to detect and control quality. Batch Testing: Periodic testing of samples from production batches. ✅ Manufacturer Reputation and Track Record Description: Evaluating the historical performance and reliability reputation of the resistor manufacturer. Key Considerations: Historical Performance Data: Looking at the past performance of products from the manufacturer. Customer Feedback and Reviews: Gathering insights from user experiences and industry feedback. Technical Aspects: Vendor Assessment: Conducting a thorough review of the manufacturer’s history and capabilities. Reliability Metrics Comparison: Comparing performance metrics against industry benchmarks.